17. From inside the combat, government entities promoted austere hair styles and fashions for everybody the sufferers; for women, quick, bowl-molded haircuts and loose, high-waisted monpe shorts (aren’t used regarding country side) were advised because the body language regarding austerity, modesty and you will house front side assistance for the complete combat energy. To possess a conclusion and you may investigation away from wartime shojo depictions inside shojo zasshi, look for Imada Erika, 2007, pp. 57–83. To own definitions off wartime trend and hairdos to have adult females, pick Wakakuwa, 2000 Wakakuwa, Midori . 2000 . Senso ga tsukuru joseizo: Dai niji sekai taisenka no Nihon josei doin zero shikakuteki puropaganda, Tokyo : Chikuma gakugei bunko . [Google Pupil] and you may Atkins, 2005 Atkins, Jacqueline . 2005 . “ Lavishness ‘s the enemy: Fashion and you can materials from inside the wartime Japan, from inside the Jacqueline Atkins ”. In Dressed in propaganda: Fabrics to the family side in The japanese, Great britain, in addition to United states, 1931–1945, 157 – 169 . The newest Haven and you may London : Yale College Force . [Google College student] .
18. Tanabe, ‘Shojo shosetsu ni muchu datta koro’, out of Bara zero kobeya yori, reprinted in the Honda, 1991 Honda, Masuko . 1991 . “ Senjika zero shojo zasshi, inside the Otsuka Eiji ”. From inside the Shojo zasshi ron, Tokyo : Tokyo shoseki . [Google Pupil] , pp. 36–37.
19. Facts away from Younger Lawn, this new interpreted Japanese title out-of Louisa May Alcott’s Little Women. The fresh name Wakakusa Monogatari was adopted when the film is shown into the Japan in 1934; prior to typed translations and you will adaptations off Alcott’s antique received some other titles.
20. Other forms from shojo entertainment, namely new Takarazuka Revue, will also have provided a design for the ideal child with its variety of the newest danso zero reijin[gorgeous woman into the men dresses], the brand new otokoyaku. Takarazuka not simply expanded a faithful shojo group of fans through the wartime and you can postwar years, however, are featured regularly during the shojo zasshi, specifically Shojo zero tomo. For a description and you may historical/anthropological study of your Takarazuka Revue, see Robertson, 1998 Robertson, Jennifer . 1998 . [Crossref] , [Google Beginner] .
21. As far back as the newest 1910s, educators and you may ethical supporters regarded as movie theatres as the breeding grounds for this new furyo, otherwise as furyo’s query cause of the jogakusei victims. Certain girls’ schools placed strict conditions towards pupils just who planned to attend film theatres, or blocked attendance downright. Come across Inagaki, 2007 Inagaki, Kyoko . 2007 . Jogakko to help you jogakusei: kyoyo, tashinami, modan bunka, Tokyo : Chuo koron shinsha . [Google Scholar] , pp. 142–forty-two.
Note: because postcard respondent (and/or publisher) used a separate spelling (Wakagusa instead of Wakakusa), the quality spelling and you will pronunciation is actually Wakakusa
twenty two. The new intimate overtones away from revealing a keen umbrella has actually prewar and very early wartime precedents. See Kawabata Yasunari’s short story, ‘Amagasa’ (Umbrella) from 1932, that contains a beneficial romantically energized world out-of a few youths discussing an enthusiastic umbrella. My thanks to The month of january Bardsley to own mentioning it relationship.
23. Come across ‘Civilizing “Degenerate” Students’, from inside the Ambaras, 2006 Ambaras, David . 2006 . Bad Jewish adult dating youth: Juvenile delinquency and also the politics of daily life into the progressive Japan, Berkeley and you will Los angeles : College or university out of Ca Push . [Bing Beginner] , pp. 66–96.
twenty four. The fee transform means figures out-of 1946–50 instead of 1936–forty (Lunden, 1953 Lunden, Walter An effective. 1953 . Juvenile delinquency into the Japan. Pre-battle, war, and you may blog post-war age . The fresh new Diary regarding Criminal Legislation, Criminology, and you can Police Research, 44(4): 428 – 432 . November-December [Crossref] , [Yahoo Student] , p. 430).
Truly the only different for the gender-segregated program away from article-number one knowledge regarding the Meiji months towards wartime several months try brand new coeducational Tokyo Sounds University [Tokyo ongaku gakko]
7. We analyse these depictions in detail in the wartime section for the my personal dissertation for the shojo zasshi:‘All of the Girl’s a phase: Representations regarding Femininity and you can Puberty when you look at the Japanese Girls’ Magazines, 1930s-1960s’ (PhD Dissertation, Stanford College, 2008).
16. Look for Inagaki, 2007 Inagaki, Kyoko . 2007 . Jogakko so you can jogakusei: kyoyo, tashinami, modan bunka, Tokyo : Chuo koron shinsha . [Bing College student] , p. 207.